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The MaxESP Version 3

If you are looking for information on an earlier version of the MaxESP that page can be found here.

The image below shows a OnStep telescope controller built on the MaxESP Version 3 PCB (open link and scroll down to see the bill-of-material.).  The MaxESP3 uses the widely available/inexpensive ESP32S micro-controller and achieves functionality very close to (and in some ways better than) the MaxPCB2.  You can see a comparison of features here.  The very affordable EasyEDA service can be used to order the PCB (or obtain the Gerbers.)  The PCB is designed to fit inside a commonly available aluminum case.   Though the case flat end caps will need very careful need drilling, cutting, and filing to provide openings for the various connectors.  If a 3D printer is available plastic end caps for the MaxESP can be printed with little time or effort.  This is the case the MaxESP3 is designed to fit: Aluminum Enclosure Electronic DIY PCB Instrument Project Box Case(120x97x40mm)

*** If using an MaxESP3 be sure the ESP32S you purchase has matching pin order (check silk screens match) and pin width (0.9".)   Unfortunately the vendor I used is now gone from eBay.  There are others options that appear to be correct and I've looked over this ESP32S and would say it's a very good bet to work. ***

Whatever you build use an appropriate DC rated fuse (current rating depends on stepper drivers/motors/etc.)

This is a MaxPCB3 configured with the DS3231 RTC, BME280, and Wifi modules. A pair of TMC5160 stepper drivers are in the Axis1/2 sockets while the Focuser/Rotator sockets have DRV8825 stepper drivers.

OnStep MaxESP notes for Rev. 3.x PCB:

*** Its up to you to understand the design, connection, limitations, and use of this device and it's components, I accept no responsibility. ***

You should read this entire page and review the EasyEDA design and BOM before starting the build...

OnStep version 3 or later is required for the MaxESP3.

Trace widths are sufficient for 3A (3 Amps) of current to the stepper drivers.  Most 0.1" pin-headers are 3A rated.  The Molex KK are 4A rated.  Current/voltage ratings of all components should be followed also.  The power jack in the BOM is rated at 5A and 24VDC, I use a 3A fuse (the fuse is 32VDC rated.)

I source most of my components from and again the exact components used are listed in the EasyEDA BOM (bill-of-material.)

Some components, such as resistors, are generic so feel free to pick a 1/8 watt or 0.1 watt metal film or carbon resistor of approximately the same value I used, give or take even 50% of the value is ok in all cases.  LED's will be brighter or dimmer depending on their associated resistor value so feel free to experiment (within the limits of the LED) before soldering those in if you like.  You could even buy a resistor kit for future projects and have all common values on-hand they don't cost much.

Many components have polarity.  The resistor networks (like RP1) have a dot on the pin 1 end which matches with the small box on the PCB silk-screen.  The electrolytic capacitors have the negative side clearly marked, that goes near the wide marking inside the circle on the silk-screen (the + is also present on the other side.)  For LED's the short lead is the cathode (-) and that goes on the flat side of the silk-screen circle.  Other components have a silkscreen that matches up with their appearance, the diodes and voltage regulators for example.  Finally, be careful to plug in the modules correctly also! (ESP32S, stepper drivers, etc.)

The J1 power switch connection should be a Molex KK as specified or directly soldered leads from a switch.  Since the case doesn't really have room for a switch I simply add a shunt to short these contacts so the board powers up when plugged.

There's 3.5mm spaced pads at each Axis1/2 stepper driver output for decent size screw down terminal blocks should that be favored over the RJ45 motor connections, as in applications driving stepper motors requiring higher power levels.

If building into the case this was designed for it is required that the ESP32 and the all stepper drivers use standard 0.1" break-away pin and socket headers.  The Axis1/2 Stepper Driver socket headers must be soldered down with care to be sure they are flush with the PCB surfaces (stepper driver and PCB!)

These breakaway pin headers are available on eBay, Amazon, etc.  The pin headers can be broken off to any length you need by hand (best with needle nose pliers though.)  The socket headers take more effort though.  A jewelers file kit usually has a little triangular file that can score the plastic to snap them off where you need.  I use an xacto razor saw but the concept is the same.  Another file can be used to trim up the end so the extra ragged plastic doesn't interfere (like it will at the stepper driver sockets if not filed down to the correct size.)  I use a little bench grinder.


The MaxESP3 should be powered from the motor supply.   A switching regulator provides 5V DC to the micro-controller, etc.  This has an input voltage range of 15V to 36VDC (other components limit us to 24VDC however.)  You can also omit the 12V regulator and bridge the pads as indicated on the silkscreen (with a jumper wire) to allow operation in the 7 to 15VDC range instead.  The stepper drivers you choose will have a voltage ratings which must also be considered.

  • The power switch header: There is a 2-pin power switch header labeled "J1", this header's pins must be connected together for the PCB to power up.  A switch is not normally used for this build so a shunt should be placed over the pins.


The MaxESP3 makes use of the ESP32's Micro-USB port.  Since power can be brought into the MaxESP3 via. this USB port there are motor supply protection diodes for TMCxxxx drivers included in this design.  Those diodes (on the PCB bottom under the stepper drivers) are specified as SMT parts.  If soldering those is a concern a similarly spec'd diode with leads (one with low voltage drop and sufficient current handling) can be substituted since the PCB is designed with through holes and SMT pads.

Choice of Stepper driver:

  • Axis1/2 (RA/Dec or Azm/Alt):
    • SilentStepStick TMC2130 or TMC5160 (read about these drivers before buying!) are the most advanced stepper drivers supported (operating in SPI mode) and are the recommended drivers.  Many options are available with these, see OnStep's configuration file.  For the TMC5160 usually no heat-sink is required.  For the TMC2130 use heat-sink shims (two aluminum bars 5/16" x 5/16" x 1-5/8" and 3/8" x 3/8" x 1-5/8" stacked to reach the case top they are held in place with electrically insulating heat-sink adhesive tape and have heat-sink compound between them.)  To adjust Vref or access the drivers after the shim is in place you must gently pry the edge of the heat-sink shim up while holding the stepper drivers down.  It helps if the controller was recently on and/or the shim is warmed up a bit to release the tape.
    • Many other drivers can work too but you'll have to devise your own aluminum shim or use the factory heat-sinks, there's a summary here.
    • Tip:
      • Usually the maximum current for a pair of TMC2130 stepper drivers in this design is 1.5A peak which is 1.06A RMS, however the exact limit will depend on the stepper motors, power supply voltage, typical ambient temperatures, etc.
      • The RA/Azm and Dec/Alt stepper driver sockets fully support the SSS TMC2130/TMC5160.  They use a shared SPI bus (pins M0,M1,M3/M4) and for this reason other stepper drivers will have limitations if used in the sockets.  For a S109, DRV8825, etc. you will be able to select only one micro-step mode (from any available) that applies to both drivers (Axis1 and Axis2) except for what the M2 control line allows. Here are some examples...
        • S109: both the same (any mode) or 32X & 16X or 8X & 2X or 4X & 2X
        • DRV8825: both the same (any mode) or 32X & 16X or 8X & 4X or 2X & 1X
        • LV8729: both the same (any mode) or 128X & 64X or 32X & 16X or 8X & 4X or 2X & 1X
      • To use the SSS TMC2130/TMC5160 status and error detection feature you must shunt the Aux2 selection ("T" shaped pins near the DS3231 and WeMos D1 Mini) to "AX1&2 MISO".)
      • The Axis1 and Axis2 ENable control line is also shared between the drivers.  For this reason you can't use the AXIS2_AUTO_POWER_DOWN_ON option (to save power.).  You can use the power saving options available on the SSS TMC2130/TMC5160 to achieve a similar effect though.
  • Axis3/4 (Focusers and/or Rotator):
    • The SilentStepStick TMC2208 is the preferred driver for these sockets.  Any available micro-step or mode can be selected using the jumpers described above.  They default to using stealthChop for silent operation with 256x interpolation for smooth motion.  They also support automatic stand-still power reduction (if the ENable pin is left floating/OPEN.)
    • The A4988, DRV8825, and LV8729 are great options as well due to their very low cost and especially for tin-can stepper motors there is often no advantage to using a more advanced stepper driver.
    • Tip:
      • The stepper driver/motor supply for this section is regulated at 12V and can supply up to 1A continuous.  I recommend staying at or under 0.75A to leave some margin in use.  How much current should be supplied depends on the stepper motor and application and this limit.  To figure out if it's ok to simply set Vref to give the full current for the stepper motor make sure the power P=IV (current * voltage) is <= 4.2 watts. For a NEMA17 3.9V 1.5A motor that's 5.8 watts, so a bit too much, but feel free to reduce the current to a level that can be handled and use that (or less) as a basis (1.0A) for the Vref setting instead.  Setting Vref is covered here.
      • These stepper drivers operate in a fixed micro-step mode selected on the 3x 3 pin headers under to each stepper driver.
        • Each header has pins labeled with M0, M1, and M2 (as they are called for a DRV8825 but named otherwise depending on the stepper driver.)  Other pins on the headers are labeled "G" or "3V3". So, placing a jumper (shunt) between M0 and the 3V3 row will pull the M0 pin HIGH.  Placing a jumper between M0 and the G row (if present) will pull the pin LOW.  Omitting the jumper will leave the pin floating OPEN.
      • Normally these drivers use lower power levels and so no heat-sink is required but the small ones usually included with various Step Stick drivers fits within the case without issue.

*** always follow the safety instructions when working with heat-sink compound ***
*** warning: never plug in or remove the stepper motor cables while powered up ***

ST4 interface:
The ST4 interface is automatically setup for operation on the correct pins by the configuration file.  You simply have to turn the option on.  If the hand-control option is used additional capabilities become available, read the configuration file for more information.  The 2k resistor network RP1 is for pulling up the ST4 lines to +3.3V and offers better noise immunity than the weak built-in pull-up resistors of the micro-controller.  There is also a pin header near the ST4's RJ12 modular jack labeled "ST4 +5V" (J12) where a shunt can be installed to place 5VDC on pin 1 of the jack (required if using a Smart Hand Controller.)  It is up to you to confirm the electrical compatibility of anything you plug into this port.

Hardware SPI interface:
Not supported.  Note: This is separate from the SPI interface used for the TMC2130/TMC5160 stepper drivers.

There is built-in Bluetooth on the ESP32S micro-controller.  This interface can be configured using the settings for SerialC in OnStep's Config.h file.

ESP8266 WiFi or W5500 Ethernet:

WiFi uses a WeMos D1 Mini Pro.  An external antenna kit is also required.  The ESP8266 needs to have my WiFi firmware uploaded, the source code for this is in the /src/addons directory within your OnStep directory.  It's an Arduino Sketch and there's instructions online for uploading via the Arduino IDE.  Be sure to read/follow the instructions in its and Config.h files!  And see the WiFi Wiki page for detailed information on how to get this working.


  • The MaxESP3 has the ability to flash the WeMos D1 Mini through the ESP32S, to use this feature you must shunt the Aux2 selection ("T" shaped pins near the DS3231 and WeMos D1 Mini) to "ESP8266 RST".  You can then use the :ESPFLASH# command and upload according to the instructions on the WiFi Wiki page.
  • Doing a search "WeMos D1 Mini Pro" on eBay for this will return lots of hits. 
  • Beware that the cheap little external antenna shown with some of the models has poor performance. 
  • Often vendors sell the WeMos D1 Mini Pro separate from the antenna lead and antenna.  I used an antenna from Mouser that worked well.
  • The D1 Mini Pro needs to have a "0 Ohm" SMT resistor moved (soldered in alternate position) to disable the on-board antenna and enable external antenna connection.  This is a delicate process and requires moderate soldering skill (my kits include this modification.)  I moved the resistor first to see how difficult that was, then removed it and bridged the correct SMT pads with solder (0 ohm so either way is fine.)  You can see info. about this process here.

DS3231 RTC (and I2C):

This optional module provides the date/time and a PPS signal (using Aux7) if desired.  Enabling the DS3231 RTC also enables the ESP32 I2C bus and overrides Home SW support since I2C is on the same Aux3/4 pins.  Since Aux3/4 (SDA/SCL) along with power/ground are available on the DB9 connector it is then possible to attach other supported I2C devices outside the MaxESP3 case via the DB9 connector.  This is desirable since one supported device that really matters is the BME280 which measures temperature, pressure, humidity and should be well outside the case for accurate measurements.

Misc. I/O:

There are pins designated Aux7 and Aux8 which can be used to support a single feature on each.  They are also brought out on the 3.5mm mini stereo jack to the right of the stepper driver jacks should you want external access to them.  The jack's collar is Gnd, it's ring (middle) is the Limit Sense, and its tip is the Illuminated reticle. 

Aux7 is an input only pin and can be used for the following (selected by positioning a shunt on the appropriate labeled pins under the DS3231 RTC module:)

  • Limit Sense - A switch (or series of switches wired in parallel) can close pulling the limit sense LOW to stop any slew and tracking.  The Limit Sense input is protected against ESD with a 0.1uF capacitor and a reasonably strong 2K pull-up resistor.  This can be physical limit switches and/or an emergency stop button.
  • PPS - from the DS3231 RTC.  Pulse per second provides OnStep with an more accurate clock source for precision timing of steps.

Aux8 is an input or output pin and can be used for one of the following:

  • Status LED - the PCB is equipped with a single status LED.  Not an recommended option, omit the LED unless in use.
  • Status LED2 - the PCB is equipped with a single status LED.  Not an recommended option, omit the LED unless in use.
  • Buzzer - the PCB is equipped with a buzzer for audible alerts.  This is enabled by placing a shunt on the appropriate labeled pins under the WeMos D1 Mini.
  • Reticle - typically this would be attached by plugging into the mini stereo jack.  If using this to directly drive an LED be sure to add a resistor in series to limit the current.
  • OneWire - supports DS2413 (dual GPIO) and DS18B20 (temperature.)  Allows for temperature compensated focusing, dew heater control, intervalometer, etc. Typically this would be attached by plugging into the mini stereo jack.

A DB9 Connector (D sub-miniature 9-pin) provides connections for:

Pin 1: Ground
Pin 2: Vsel (3.3V or 5V according to the shunt position labeled "VSEL" near the DB9 connector, J9)
Pin 3: Encoder 1B, encoder input going to the WeMos D1 Mini (pulled up or down according to the shunt position labeled "ENC PULL" between the DB9 and WeMos D1 Mini, J10)
Pin 4: Encoder 2B, encoder input going to the WeMos D1 Mini (as above, shunt position "ENC PULL")
Pin 5: PEC
Pin 6: Aux3, typically used for a Home SW on RA or Azm but can be used any purpose (dew heater for instance, on/off switch, etc.)  If I2C is used this is SDA instead.
Pin 7: Aux4, typically used for a Home SW on Dec or Alt but can be used any purpose (dew heater for instance, on/off switch, etc.)  If I2C is used this is SCL instead.
Pin 8: Encoder 1A, encoder input going to the WeMos D1 Mini (as above, shunt position "ENC PULL")
Pin 9: Encoder 2A, encoder input going to the WeMos D1 Mini (as above, shunt position "ENC PULL")

  • The shunt position labeled "VSEL" also controls the pull-up voltage (if shunt position "ENC PULL" is set for pull-up) for Encoder pins 3,4,8,9.
  • Tips:
    • The Vsel shunt must be set to 3.3V or 5V, not omitted!
    • Signals from PEC, AUX3, and AUX4 travel to the main MCU.
    • The ESP32 is NOT 5V tolerant.
    • Signals from the Encoder pins travel to the WeMos D1 Mini (ESP8266.)
    • The ESP8266 pins are not 5V tolerant (there was a time a year or three back when most everyone thought its pins were 5V tolerant and we have a long history of using it like it is.)

*** the DA112S1 SMT diode array provides ESD protection on the DB9 signal lines and is an optional and experimental component I omit from my builds although I get the impression it works properly from other users. ***

*** warning: never plug in or remove the Limit SW/Reticule or DB9 Connector or Serial cables while powered up ***